Although the use of many synthetic fertilizers and genetically modified organisms on organic farms is prohibited, organic farming still does not always take these permaculture principles into account. To be clear: organic gardening and agriculture are absolutely superior to non-organic when it comes to supporting the ecosystem and producing better crops. Permaculture and organic gardening have some similarities, but there are also some important differences between the two.
Worm casting is reported to be more successful than conventional seed start compost. Permaculture design is based on replicating or imitating natural patterns in ecosystems because these solutions have evolved and proven effective for thousands of years. As a result, the implementation of the permaculture design will vary greatly depending on the area of the Earth in which it is located. Because the implementation of permaculture is so localized and location-specific, scientific literature for the field is missing or not always applicable. Design principles are derived from the science of system ecology and the study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use.
All fertilization and quilting materials are produced in the permaculture garden. Hügelkultur is the practice of burying wood to increase groundwater retention. The porous structure of wood acts like a sponge when it decomposes underground. During the rainy season, enough buried wood can absorb enough water to keep crops during the dry season. This technique is a traditional practice that has been developed in Europe for centuries and has recently been adopted by permaculturalists.
Human habitats and activities must develop in harmony with existing ecosystems. People’s environmental impact must be reduced by limiting consumption and moving away from the model of infinite economic growth. Practice includes the use of earthworms, such as red wedge glers, to break down green and brown waste. Worms produce worm castings, which can be used to fertilize the garden organically. Worm casting has been observed to increase plant growth and reduce heavy metals in the soil.
Permaculture methods such as composting, “cutting and falling”, agriculture without tillage and more efficient use of fertilizers, such as leaf sprays, increase useful soil organisms. These methods reduce or eliminate nitrogen or carbon that escapes from the soil. Urban permaculture uses the principles of permaculture to create sustainable systems within smaller Selbstversorger spaces. Sustainable spaces can be created in small gardens, on roofs, in patios or on balconies. Each permaculture design is location-specific and depends on the available resources and the natural energy flow in the room. The aim is to provide an ecological environment, usually an environment that produces crops, even in a busy and busy urban space.