Bacteria such as Escherichia coli are able to make vitamin K2; however, they only produce the menaquinones MK-7 to MK-11. Data was taken from the Women’s Health Initiative, which included a cohort of 36,282 women. Women’s dietary calcium intake averaged about 800 mg/day, while those who supplemented with calcium were given an additional 585 mg/day.5 Could their increased risk of cardiovascular disease be caused by poor intake of vitamin K2? Further studies are needed to determine this and whether vitamin K2 supplementation alone or in combination with calcium can provide better results for bone and heart health.
Whether in a multivitamin or stand-alone product, vitamin K2 supplements usually administer menaquinones such as MK-4 or MK-7 separately or in combination. Both are helpful ways to increase the menaquinones that provide your diet and gut microbiome. MK-7 may have better bioavailability than MK-4, but more studies should detect this potential difference. Not getting enough vitamin K over time can contribute to chronic health problems such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.
In contrast, vitamin K1 does not have the same beneficial effect in reducing vascular calcification because LDL carries most of the extrapathic vitamin K as the menaquinone subtype. This process is aided by the presence of bile salts and secretions of the pancreas. When absorbed, they are packaged in vesicles called chylomicrons and excreted in the lacteal structures present in enterocytes by exocytosis, a process that can be disrupted in natural vitamin k2 many hospitalized patients. These chylomicrons containing fat-soluble vitamin K are released into the blood through the thoracic canal, into the left subclavian vein. One study showed that plasma levels of phylloquinone peaked at 6 hours after a meal. In addition, 75-90% of the vitamin K ingested was still present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and the rest was carried by both high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins.
The two main subtypes are vitamin K1 and K2, while vitamin K3 is a synthetic form that can be converted into vitamin K2 in vivo. Vitamin K1 and K2, on the other hand, are fat-soluble, allowing them to enter cells without the need for transmembrane transport proteins, especially in animals, while K3 is water-soluble. It has been hypothesized that vitamin K2 is indeed just as important as K1, due to the different structure of these subtypes. Some scientists are convinced that people at risk for heart disease should take vitamin K2 supplements regularly. Others point out that more studies are needed before good recommendations can be made. Vitamin K1 is involved in blood clotting, and vitamin K2 benefits bone and heart health.
A lack of vitamin D results in decreased amounts of serum levels of ionized calcium, as well as a reduction in Ca2+ in the seminal fluid. Subsequently, this affects the calcium protein channels regulated by vitamin D in the plasma membrane of spermatozoa. Transmembrane protein channels were identified to facilitate the inflow of Ca2+ into sperm. Sperm cation channels 1 and 2 are transmembrane protein channels that are crucial for sperm activation and motility, as revealed in a study in which male participants with impaired sperm motility showed a reduction in CatSper 1. VKDP’s GGCX and MGP were found to help in the maturation of sperm in the epididymis.